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Algorithm description
The recorded return signals are first corrected for the pulse-pile-up effect, signal induced noise and the background signal.
The DIAL principle is used to retrieve the ozone number density from the observed and corrected backscatter.

The software upgrade to version 8.2 implemented in the summer of 2007 includes the following changes with respect to previous version (7.3):
1. a change from sondes to NCEP climatology for the a-priori temperature profile
2. an alteration of the starting time between signal release and first count
3. an update of Rayleigh scattering implementation
4. a re-definition of the masks which define the used altitude interval

Expected precision and accuracy
During the latest intercomparison campaign, the accuracy of the lidar measurement was estimated to be 3% over the altitude range 12 to 45 km.
Contact information
For more information regarding the RIVM stratospheric ozone lidar please contact the principal investigator Daan Swart (Daan.Swart at rivm.nl).
McDermid, I.S., Bergwerff, J.B., Bodeker, G., Boyd, I.S., Brinksma, E.J., Connor, B.J., Farmer, R., Gross, M.R., Kimvilakani, P., Matthews, W.A., McGee, T.J., Ormel, F.T., Parrish, A., Singh, U., Swart, D.P.J., Tsou, J.J., Wang, P.H. & Zawodny, J.: OPAL: Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Ozone Profiler Assessment at Lauder, New Zealand, 1, Blind intercomparison (1998). Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 28683-28692
McDermid, I.S., Bergwerff, J.B., Bodeker, G., Boyd, I.S., Brinksma, E.J., Connor, B.J., Farmer, R., Gross, M.R., Kimvilakani, P., Matthews, W.A., McGee, T.J., Ormel, F.T., Parrish, A., Singh, U., Swart, D.P.J. & Tsou, J.J.: OPAL: Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Ozone Profiler Assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. II. Intercomparison of Revised Results (1998a). Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 28693-28699.
Other related publications
Cortesi, U., Lambert, J. C., De Clercq, C., Bianchini, G., Blumenstock, T., Bracher, A., Castelli, E., Catoire, V., Chance, K. V., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Godin-Beekmann, S., Jones, N., Jucks, K., Keim, C., Kerzenmacher, T., Kuellmann, H., Kuttippurath, J., Iarlori, M., Liu, G. Y., Liu, Y., McDermid, I. S., Meijer, Y. J., Mencaraglia, F., Mikuteit, S., Oelhaf, H., Piccolo, C., Pirre, M., Raspollini, P., Ravegnani, F., Reburn, W. J., Redaelli, G., Remedios, J. J., Sembhi, H., Smale, D., Steck, T., Taddei, A., Varotsos, C., Vigouroux, C., Waterfall, A., Wetzel, G. & Wood, S.: Geophysical validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data (2007). Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 7, 18, 4807-4867. 
Iapaolo, M., Godin-Beekmann, S., del Frate, F., Casadio, S., Petitdidier, M., McDermid, I.S., LeBlanc, T., Swart, D.P.J., Meijer, Y.J., Hansen, G. & Stebel, K.: GOME ozone profiles retrieved by neural network techniques: A global validation with lidar measurements (2007). Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 107, 1, 105-119. 
Ridolfi, M., Blum, U., Carli, B., Catoire, V., Ceccherini, S., Claude, H., De Clercq, C., Fricke, K.H., Friedl-Vallon, F., Iarlori, M., Keckhut, P., Kerridge, B.J., Lambert, J.-C., Meijer, Y.J., Mona, L., Oelhaf, H., Pappalardo, G., Pirre, M., Rizi, V., Robert, C., Swart, D.P.J., von Clarmann, T., Waterfall, A. & Wetzel, G. : Geophysical validation of temperature retrieved by the ESA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT atmospheric limb-emission measurements (2007). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 16, 4459-4487. 
Brinksma, E.J., Bracher, A., Lolkema, D.E., Segers, A.J., Boyd, I.S., Bramstedt, K., Claude, H., Godin-Beekmann, S., Hansen, G., Kopp, G., Leblanc, T., McDermid, I.S., Meijer, Y.J., Nakane, H., Parrish, A., von Savigny, C., Stebel, K., Swart, D.P.J., Taha, G. & Piters, A.J.M.: Geophysical Validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles (2006). Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 6, 6, 197-209. 
Kyrölä, E., Tamminen, J., Leppelmeier, G.W., Sofieva, V., Hassinen, S., Seppälä, A., Verronen, P.T., Bertaux, J.L., Hauchecorne, A., Dalaudier, F., Fussen, D., Vanhellemont, F., Fanton d'Andon, O., Barrot, G., Mangin, A., Theodore, B., Guirlet , M., Koopman, R.M., Saavedra de Miguel, L., Snoeij, P., Fehr, T., Meijer, Y.J. & Fraisse, R.: Nighttime ozone profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere by the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars on Envisat (2006). Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D24306
Meijer, Y.J., Swart, D.P.J., Baier, F., Bhartia, P.K., Bodeker, G.E., Casadio, S., Chance , K., Del Frate, F., Erbertseder, T., Flynn, L.E., Godin-Beekmann, S., Hansen, G., Hasekamp, O.P., Kaifel, A., Kelder, H.M., Kerridge, B.J., Lambert, J.-C., Landgraf, J., Latter , B., Liu, X., McDermid, I.S., Müller , M.D., Pachepsky, Y., Rozanov, V., Siddans, R., Tellmann, S., van der A , R.J., van Oss, R.F., Weber, M. & Zehner, C.: Evaluation of GOME ozone profiles from nine different algorithms (2006). Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D21306
Steinbrecht, W., Claude, H., Schönenborn, F., McDermid, I.S., Leblanc, T., Godin, S., Song, T., Swart, D.P.J., Meijer, Y.J., Kämpfer, N., Calisesi, Y., N., S., de la Noë, J., Parrish, A.D., Boyd, I.S., Brühl, C., Steil, B., Giorgetta, M. & Manzini, E.: Long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone at selected stations of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) (2006). Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D10308
Keckhut, P., McDermid, I.S., Swart, D.P.J., McGee, T., Godin-Beekmann, S., Adriani, A., Barnes, J., Baray, J.-L., Bencherif, H., Claude, H., Fiocco, G., Hansen, G., Hauchecorne, A., Leblanc, T., Lee, C.H., Pal, S., Megie, G., Nakane, H., Neuber, R., Steinbrecht, W. & Thayer, J.: Review of ozone and temperature lidar validations performed within the framework of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (2004). Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 6, 9, 721?733. 
Meijer, Y.J., Swart, D.P.J., Allaart, M., Andersen, S.B., Bodeker, G., Boyd, I.S., Braathen, G., Calisesi, Y., Claude, H., Dorokhov, V., Gathen, P.v.d., Gil, M., Godin-Beekmann, S., Goutail, F., Hansen, G., Karpetchko, A., Keckhut, P., Kelder, H.M., Koelemeijer, R., Kois, B., Koopman, R.M., Kopp, G., Lambert, J.-C., Leblanc, T., McDermid, I.S., Pal, S., Schets, H., Stubi, R., Suortti, T., Visconti, G. & Yela, M.: Pole-to-pole validation of Envisat GOMOS ozone profiles using data from ground-based and balloon sonde measurements (2004). Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D23305
Meijer, Y.J., van der A, R.J., van Oss, R.F., Swart, D.P.J., Kelder, H.M. & Johnston, P.V.: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profile characterization using interpretation tools and lidar measurements for intercomparison (2003). Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, D23, 4723.
DIAL  Differential absorption lidar
EQUAL Envisat quality assessment with lidar
NCEP National centers for environmental prediction (http://www.ncep.noaa.gov/)
NDSC Network for the detection of stratospheric change (now NDACC)
NIWA National institute of water and atmospheric research (www.niwa.co.nz)
OPAL Ozone profiler assessment at Lauder
RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (www.rivm.nl)
TOPAL Temperature and ozone profiler assessment at Lauder
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19 September 2016